|By Clyde Lewis
Imagine for a moment that Alien abduction is a recruiting tactic by organized religion. Okay now that you have imagined it, think about the idea of millions of righteous individuals being beamed up into heaven to meet Christ. Now remove the religious overtones to the rapture. What you have is mass alien abduction. The similarities of a "rapture" and an alien harvest sound eerily similar.
In the course of human history there have been doomsayers that have come and gone and delivered messages that shake the bewildered herd. Each doomsayer has left their mark and modern doom prophets make their millions and then invest those millions in cars, property, Jesus waterslides and all of the treasures of the world.
Ironically investing is for the future.
Something in which doomsayers say is not going to be bright.
Fear is great for turning a buck and it is even more frightening when that buck is turned on something that plays with religious beliefs of Armageddon. It is just as frightening when the buck is turned by exploiting a phenomenon with religious romanticism.
That phenomenon is the abduction/contactee experience.
One of the more notorious of the doomsayers has been Tim Lahaye the man responsible for the "Left behind" series that deals with the secret rapture of Christians who are born again.
Roughly 40 percent of mainstream Christians believe in the Rapture. After the "Left Behind" series one wonders how many more are converting so that they won't be left behind.
I have seen Rapture believers in Seattle that have T-shirts and bumper stickers that have slogans that say "Warning driver will abandon car in case of rapture!" or "Beam me into your Kingdom Jesus!"
This bumper sticker theology troubles me because of the hypocrisy of it all.
Using cosmic interpretation on such matters the rapture seems to be in essence the idea that a few million saved people will be literally beamed up to God and will not have to live through the tribulation of death, war, and pestilence during the reign of the anti-Christ.
The agenda of the "Left Behind" series is to convince stubborn Christians that there will be a time when people who are righteous will literally disappear without a trace and many people will wonder where they all went. Those who are not religious will suffer the torments of the tribulation and so the idea is to scare people into thinking that if they have skeletons in their closet they had better repent or get left behind.
Skimming through the Internet I happened upon something called the "Left behind" letters. As I was reading through the letters I got lost in the weirdness of it all. It was as if I was reading some sort of Christian Twilight Zone script.
It struck me as being similar to the "away team" videos of the Heaven's gate Cult where well shorn and androgynous Nike wearing team members were speaking about how they were going to a better place and were about to be beamed aboard a space ship with their Alien God traveling in the tail of comet Hale Bopp.
They believed that the planet was about to be spayed under and that a "tribulation" was about to happen.
The "Left behind" letter I found was frightening to me because it was written in all seriousness about the mass evacuation of the righteous from earth:
I am a devout Christian. I believe in God the eternal father and in the divinity of his son Jesus the only true Christ and the power of the Holy Spirit. You may be wondering where I have gone. Well I can only tell you that an important event has occurred that is a fulfillment of prophecy.
The event that has just occurred is called the Rapture. The word rapture is not found in the Bible. The word comes from the Latin word rapere which translates "shall be caught up".
I am sure that utter chaos has over taken the world right now. I am sure there were lots of car accidents with missing passengers, plane crashes that has caused extensive loss of lives and I bet CNN, MSNBC, ABC, and CBS must have on film someone disappearing.
Soon if not now a world leader will emerge and make a peace pact with Israel for 7 years. THIS IS IMPORTANT. This is the antichrist.
The first thing you need to do is accept Jesus Christ as your Lord and Savior. ALL THE PEOPLE WHO ARE MISSING ARE SAVED PEOPLE, THEY HAVE BEEN BORN AGAIN. That is why you were left behind. When Jesus returns after the seven years, all the unsaved people will be destroyed. You need to be born again.
May god bless you and it's not too late to be saved.
After reading the letter I had to go back and read what Marshall Applewhite "left behind" after he and his followers committed suicide it was a letter eerily similar to the left behind letters that I read about the rapture:
"By the time you receive this, we'll be gone -- several dozen of us. We came from the Level Above Human in distant space and we have now exited the bodies that we were wearing for our earthly task, to return to the world from whence we came -- task completed. The distant space we refer to is what your religious literature would call the Kingdom of Heaven or the Kingdom of God.
We came for the purpose of offering a doorway to the Kingdom of God at the end of this civilization, the end of this age, the end of this millennium. We came from that Level, that time, that space, and entered this one.
And in so doing, we had to enter human bodies -- which we did, for the most part, in the mid-seventies. Now it was time for us to leave those bodies (vehicles) -- bodies that we borrowed for the time we were here (by previous arrangement) for this specific task.
The task was not only to bring in information about that Evolutionary Kingdom Level Above Human, but to give us the experience of working against the forces of what the human evolutionary level, at this time, has become.
And while it was a good learning experience for us, it also gave all who ever received knowledge from that Kingdom an opportunity to recognize us and this information, and to even move out of the human level and into the Next Level or the Next Evolutionary Level, the "Kingdom of Heaven," the Kingdom of God.
The Kingdom of God, the Level Above Human, is a physical world, where they inhabit physical bodies.
However, those bodies are merely containers, suits of clothes -- the true identity (of the individual) is the soul or mind/spirit residing in that "vehicle." The body is merely a tool for that individual's use -- when it wears out, he is issued a new one.
No one can enter the Kingdom of Heaven by trying to live a good life in this world, and then, thinking that when this world's life takes your body, you get to "go to heaven." The only time that Next Kingdom can be entered is when there is a Member or Members of that Kingdom who have come into the human kingdom, incarnated as we have, offering clarification of that information.
To get into a discarnate condition just by disconnecting from your body doesn't mean that you are going to go anywhere, whether that loss of body is "premature" or not. When we step out of our "vehicle," we have to know where and who our "tour guide" (our Shepherd) is -- for what's next. We have to know we can connect with a Shepherd whom we trust, and that we have decided, "If that Shepherd will have me, I want to continue to be a sheep -- and I will do everything I can to please that Shepherd."
Periodically, that Next Level sends in a Representative -- a Shepherd -- and offers a graduation class, offers life, out of this evolutionary level into that Next Evolutionary Level, and we are at the end of one of those times. TI and DO were the names used by the Representatives of that Next Level, the Kingdom of God, sent to the "surface" of this planet to serve as our Teachers/"Midwives" at this time.
During a brief window of time, some may wish to follow us. If they do, it will not be easy. The requirement is to not only believe who the Representatives are, but, to do as they and we did. You must leave everything of your humanness behind. This includes the ultimate sacrifice and demonstration of faith -- that is, the shedding of your human body.
If you should choose to do this, logistically it is preferred that you make this exit somewhere in the area of the West or Southwest of the United States -- but if this is not possible -- it is not required. You must call on the name of TI and DO to assist you. In so doing, you will engage a communication of sorts, alerting a spacecraft to your location where you will be picked up after shedding your vehicle, and taken to another world -- by members of the Kingdom of Heaven.
Only a Member of the Next Level can give you Life -- can take you out of "Death" -- but it requires that you disconnect, separate, from the last element holding you to the human kingdom.
We know what we're saying -- we know it requires a "leap of faith." But it's deliberate -- designed for those who would rather take that leap than stay in this world.
We suggest that anyone serious about considering this go into their most quiet place and ask, scream, with all of their being, directing their asking to the Highest Source they can imagine (beyond Earth's atmosphere), to give them guidance. Only those "chosen" by that Next Kingdom will know that this is right for them, and will be given the courage required to act.'"-- Heaven's Gate Statement from Marshall Applewhite after he and 38 followers committed suicide to be taken up to heaven.
I remember that when the Heaven's gate cult committed suicide in their Rancho Santa Fe Compound there were many militant Christians like Pat Robertson and others who claimed that anyone who believed in UFO's and Aliens should be stoned.
" If such things (aliens) exist, they are simply demons trying to lead people away from Christ. People who believe in space aliens should be put to death by stoning -- according to "God's word." The Bible says the Earth belongs to man, but the heavens belong to the Lord He has given us the Earth. He also warned, way back when Moses was writing down not only what is the Ten Commandments, but Deuteronomy, which is almost the Second Law.
Here is what he said to the children of Israel about this whole matter:
If there is found among you, within any of your gates which the Lord your God gives you, a man or a woman who has been wicked in the sight of the Lord your God, in transgressing His covenant, who has gone and served other gods and worshipped them, eithe r the sun or moon or any of the hosts of heaven which I have not commanded you, and you hear of it, then you shall inquire diligently. And if it is indeed true and certain that such an abomination has been committed in Israel, then you shall bring out to your gates that man or woman who has committed that wicked thing, and stone to death that man or woman with stones.
Can a demon appear as a slanty-eyed, funny-looking creature? Of course he can, or it can. Of course they can deceive people. And if they can lead somebody away from the true God, or away from Jesus Christ, anyway it happens, it doesn't matter, you will lose your salvation. It doesn't matter how they get you. The question is, did they get you, and under what guise?
This is man in rebellion against God, who refuses to take God's Law. And God says, 'My covenant says you won't do this. And if I find anybody in Israel,' -- which is his pure nation -- 'If I find anybody in Israel that's doing this sort of thing, then I want you to take him out and dispose of him.' "It's a clear violation of God's word." - Pat Robertson
However the idea of a mass evacuation of Earth (The Rapture) by scary alien, God or otherwise is preached by Robertson, Jerry Fallwell, Jim Bakker, Jimmy Swaggert, John Walvoord, and Jack Van Impe.
There seems to be an almost cult like movement in the United States that has some how taken hold. Some Christians are calling this the "rapture movement."
People like Tim Lahaye have fortified the idea that there will be a change that will take place and your loved ones, those loved ones who have accepted Christ will be taken up into heaven never to return.
I was curious about this idea after I had been bombarded with letters from people asking me to view the movie series "Left behind."
When I viewed the movie I was troubled because it seemed to me that the whole Idea seemed like a page ripped out of a Twilight zone script. This was one of the different doctrines that struck me as being derived from some sort of supernatural or paranormal belief that had eerie overtones that appeared similar to the alien abduction phenomenon.
As far as I can tell, NONE of the early authors of doctrine, neither the early saints like Augustine of the Coptic church and Ephraim of the Syriac church, nor later church writers taught this' doctrine. Nor did the early church creeds of modern times before the 1800's teach this doctrine.
It just came about on the religious scene and it has been preached from the modern pulpits by charismatic, and evangelicals as gospel.
Now I must admit that just because a doctrine does or doesn't have the blessing of the original authors of doctrine in many mainstream faiths means absolutely nothing. The rapture could be a reality and I could be wrong about it. I am offering a way to understand how the rapture idea has evolved and how it's relationship to alien abduction is a possibility. I also realize that the doctrine of the rapture is controversial, moreover in this dispensational time frame it seems only natural for this type of thinking to exist.
I feel that the "Rapture Movement" has an agenda and that it may be clouding the inevitable possibilities that are neither demonic nor angelic.
I believe that some of the religious sects are hypocrites for criticizing the Heaven's gate Cult when I see the peculiar similarities in the Rapture and the "Left behind" doomsayers. It seems that Heaven's Gate beat these guys to the punch by demonstrating how this type of thinking can lead to dispensational dementia. Those that take the liberty of demonizing those who claim that they have been in contact with Extra terrestrials also annoy me.
The alleged doctrine, or the romanticizing of a certain group of people being transported to heaven is a fascinating idea when you consider that it is probably happening already.
But not in the way that most Christians want to believe. Not like the version that Lahaye has successfully marketed and pocketed millions of dollars for.
It seems that the rapture itself is a product of dispensationalist views and not the views of the prophets who wrote down scripture in the bible.
The doctrine is believed to have crept into the religious herds through John Nelson Darby, the man who of course has been pinned as the man who created the dispensational movements in the early 1830's. A similar teaching was developed at the same time in the Catholic Apostolic Church under the leadership of Edward Irving.
It is linked to a story that also can be looked at as the possible genesis for the idea of people being caught up to heaven. This one has more of an abduction/contactee element to it.
Margaret Macdonald was a teenager who lived in Port Glasgow Scotland in the 1830's. It is reported that Margaret had a vision. This vision was mingled with revelation and prophecy.
Her accounts of the vision play out in simulacrum to the alien contactee and abduction cases that have been reported.
"Suddenly what it was burst upon me with a glorious light I saw it was just the Lord himself descending from Heaven with a shout, just the glorified man. even Jesus; but that all must, as Stephen was, be filled with the Holy Ghost, that they might look up, and see the brightness of the Father's glory. I saw the error to be, that men think that it will be something seen by the natural eye; but 'tis spiritual discernment that is needed, the eye of God in his people. Many passages were revealed, in a light in which I had not before seen them."-- Taken from the account of the vision of Margaret Macdonald 1830.
In her vision she comments that the experience was similar to the biblical account of Stephen being executed by stoning.
In the book of Acts it is written that Stephen a disciple of Jesus and Martyr for God fell to his knees as the stones pelted his body. He looked into the heaven and coming down out of the sky were two beings that he described as Christ and God.
"But he, being full of the Holy Ghost, looked up steadfastly into heaven, and saw the glory of God, and Jesus standing on the right hand of God And said, Behold, I see the heavens opened, and the Son of man standing on the right hand of God."
The story Of Stephen is a faith promoting experience for most Christians however the story of beings coming down from the sky to assist in divine intervention has been heard in the oft-repeated stories told by self described prophets and visionaries of the same era.
Each story has elements that sound very much like the abduction stories where people have been taken up into a spaceship and given revelation and prophetic warnings of future events.
There is of course another claim that the very same thing happened in the same year in Palmyra New York. The story of Joseph Smith jr. is controversial as well and is spoken of in reverence and as blasphemous depending on who you speak to.
Joseph Smith of course was the founder of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day saints (Mormons). Mormon faithful say that Joseph was visited by two beings as well. Like the Macdonald encounter, Joseph met up with beings from another dimension.
Joseph Smith's experience is very similar to the alien abduction reports of today. Joseph Smith experienced virtually all the classic indicators of alien abduction.
All of his family members were getting visits and his Father also was a man who was having these experiences. Before the modern stories of abduction one could theorize that people like Smith and Macdonald could only explain their experiences the way the prophets of antiquity would.
Perhaps it was the result of good Protestant upbringing.
Young Joseph had unusual dreams and experiences like his father, but according to Mormon histories his encounters continued to increase in intensity until nearly every abduction encounter similarity applied.
The Mormon claim of the first vision also demonstrates the similar applications of being taken up in the moment and left behind to ponder the importance of the experience. The story is that Joseph prayed in the woods near his home and after doing so was overcome by a dark force. After he felt as though he was about to die he was engulfed in a beam of light and paralyzed.
As with the encounter claims by Margaret Macdonald, Joseph Smith also has the same encounter as Stephen the disciple.
"Thick darkness gathered around me, and it seemed to me for a time as if I were doomed to sudden destruction.
But, exerting all my powers to call upon God to deliver me out of the power of this enemy which had seized upon me, and at the very moment when I was ready to sink into despair and abandon myself to destruction--not to an imaginary ruin, but to the power of some actual being from the unseen world, who had such marvelous power as I had never before felt in any being--just at this moment of great alarm, I saw a pillar of light exactly over my head, above the brightness of the sun, which descended gradually until it fell upon me.
It no sooner appeared than I found myself delivered from the enemy which held me bound. When the light rested upon me I saw two Personages, whose brightness and glory defy all description, standing above me in the air." - The Testimony of Joseph Smith
The official account apparently does not match the several accounts that have been published about Smith's encounter. There are many that allege that Smith first did not make the claim that Christ or God visited him.
They say that Smith much later theorized that deity visited him and that all of his past sins were forgiven him. He then claimed to have been visited by other beings that he later determined were angels and prophets of antiquity.
Mormon historians were later forced to confront the possibility that Joseph Smith had encounters with beings other than angels and prophets. There were claims that there was a "discovery" of the so-called "White Salamander" letter.
This caused a scandal in the church and the Mormon hierarchy did everything to prove that the letter was a forgery created by Mark Hoffman.
The letter was a confirmation that Joseph used seer stones, treasures, and enchantments, in order to find the Plates of Mormon. The letter also related that Joseph Smith obtained the Book of Mormon not from an angel, but from a spirit that changed itself into a being that looked like a White salamander.
This struck a chord with me. A Salamander has a narrow nose with big eyes. To see a white one on two feet standing before you would look just like a typical Alien Grey.
I lived in Utah during the scandal and the minute that I heard that Joseph may had been visited by a being that looked like a white salamander I immediately determined that this was some sort of proof that the church had covered up Smith's encounter with Alien beings.
The White Salamander letter was subsequently proven to be a forgery.
However the story still brings up theories about the origins of Smith's encounters.
Historians were able to uncover information about The Smith Family and possibly other encounters by beings that were not from a "religious" realm but from a paranormal realm.
The accounts also report that an upright reptile of some kind came out of a hole and transformed before Joseph Smith in front of witnesses.
In a book called "Mormonism Unveiled", E.D. Howe writes of an account that Joseph claimed that the reptilian being in question struck him three times.
Mormon apologists say that the account was that of a tree frog and not a White Salamander.
It is obvious that the texts and the letters were used to destroy the Mormon Church and link it to folk magic. Yet the whole scandal raises questions about what really happened.
If Smith was abducted or visited by aliens it would explain a lot of things. Margaret Macdonald's encounter created the "rapture movement" and Smith's encounter gave us Mormonism.
Both are dispensational movements.
Forty years later a dentist named John Ballou Newbrough, who had no connections to the movements of Macdonald or Mormonism, went to the home of a friend and told him an unbelievable story. It was a story that once again has the air of a modern alien experience.
"I had quite an experience about 4 AM this morning. I was sleeping nicely when I felt a hand on my shoulder. A voice said 'Wake up, doctor. Everything is all right. I only want to ask you a question and we will go. I rubbed my eyes and saw that the room was lit up with pillars of a soft light very pleasing to the eyes."-John Newbrough
Once again this account rings similar to modern UFO and alien abduction reports. However it is evident that in the time of 1870 Newbrough knew of only angels and messengers from God:
"I saw a number of beautiful spirits or Angels. They did not have wings. The voice said, would you like to perform a mission for Jehovah? I sat up and answered, What is the mission so that I may know whether to say yes or no?' The answer came back, Jehovah would like you to live spiritually for ten years. At the end of that time we will come back and tell you what it is we desire, for your body and mind are not sufficiently perceptible now. You must be pure."
"We want you never to kill anything or eat meat, fish, or fowl. Live on nuts, fruit, and vegetables. You don't need so much food, as you are too heavy now . . . One other thing is very important. You must help people. Give people who need it, dental help without pay, if they can not pay. By individual charity you change the person's thoughts. They will think of you as a good man and will send out loving thoughts to you. You will need all the love you can get. We do not refer to sexual desires let nature take care of that.' I answered, This will be quite a change of living for me. I will let you know.' 'We already know your answer, the voice said, It will be yes Then the lights dimmed and the atmosphere changed back to normal darkness." --John Newbrough
After many years Newbrough had the same encounters with pillars of light and beings in his room.
He was asked by the emissaries to buy a typewriter. Newbrough was asked to have fresh paper by the typewriter, and that every morning these beings would return and that he was to write everything they dictate to him. He told them that he did not know how to type, the beings told him that they would help his hands type out the words.
Every morning before sunrise from, January 1, 1881 until December 15, 1881, Newbrough wrote at his Sholes typewriter at a speed almost impossible, considering the crudity of this first typewriter. In 1882 the first edition of the book called the OAHSPE was published.
The OAHSPE tells the story of space dwelling entities that live above us.
"These space-dwelling entities of OAHSPE claim to be, and indeed may very well be, members of a cosmic society older than the earth." John Newbrough 1882
I want to point out the evolution of the claims.
In the 1830's the vision of Margaret Macdonald planted the seed of the "rapture movement."
She claimed that the vision was that of God and Jesus Christ.
Joseph Smith also had a visionary experience that he claims was with God and Jesus Christ. Later he claims visits by angels.
The story evolves and associates of Smith allege that not only have angels spoken with Joseph but also reptilian beings have appeared and harmed the young prophet. Joseph is ordered to translate a book. A book called the Book of Mormon that the angel claims is an account of Christ's visit to North and South America.
Some forty years later a dentist has a similar encounter where he claims that angels have spoken with him and have ordered him to type a book.
The book is an account of space beings that live in sky above the earth. This book is published in 1882 and it is called OAHSPE.
Like the Book of Mormon before it, OAHSPE was written like a Bible.
I have read one of the volumes and believe me there are many things in the book that when read are eerily prophetic.
Some scriptures deal with the "sins" of eating meat and that the great beast will reveal itself with many names.
"And man ate fish and flesh, becoming carnivorous, and darkness came upon him, and he no more heard the voice of Jehovih, or believed in Him. This was the fifth era.
And the Beast divided itself into four great heads, and possessed the earth about; and man fell down and worshipped them.
And the names of the heads of the Beast were Brahmin, Buddhist, Christian and Mohammedan. And they divided the earth, and apportioned it between themselves, choosing soldiers and standing armies for the maintenance of their earthly aggrandizement.
And the Brahmins had seven million soldiers; the Buddhists twenty millions; the Christians seven millions; and the Mohammedans two millions, whose trade was killing man. And man, in service of the Beast, gave one-sixth of his life and his labor to war and standing armies; and one-third of his life he gave to dissipation and drunkenness. This was the sixth era.
Jehovih called out to man to desist from evil; but man heard Him not. For the cunning of the Beast had changed man's flesh, so that his soul was hid as if in a cloud, and he loved sin.
Jehovih called unto His angels in heaven, saying: Go ye down to the earth once more, to man, whom I created to inhabit the earth and enjoy it, and say ye to man: Thus saith Jehovih:
Behold, the seventh era is at hand. Thy Creator commandeth thy change from a carnivorous man of contention to an herbivorous man of peace. The four heads of the Beast shall be put away; and war shall be no more on the earth.
Thy armies shall be disbanded. And, from this time forth, whosoever desireth not to war, thou shall not impress; for it is the commandment of thy Creator.
Neither shalt thou have any God, nor Lord, nor Savior, but only thy Creator, Jehovih! Him only shalt thou worship henceforth forever. I am sufficient unto Mine own creations.
And to as many as separate themselves from the dominion of the Beast, making these covenants unto Me, have I given the foundation of My kingdom on earth." --OAHSPE
I find this passage most interesting because not only does it name the warlike beasts, it also claims that when the Christians, Muslims, Hindus, and Buddhists make war on earth the Extra terrestrials will return and declare that there is only one being that should be worshiped.
That being Jehovih, I do not know if this is a misspelling of Jehovah the god of the winds, the God of might.
Either way we have another account of beings arriving to warn the inhabitants to change and prepare to be taken up to receive knowledge.
I know that this seems to be a lot to swallow and everything that I have written can be all speculation, however the modern alien abduction stories may very well be attempts from other realms to communicate and change the way we feel about ourselves spiritually. The idea of divine intervention is nothing new and is not a product of doom and gloom that the "Left Behind" series has attempted to portray.
You may believe in the Rapture and your beliefs are your own, however I am asking that you open your mind and look into the past that has lead up to the possible misinformation or dispensational dementia.
Perhaps this is not magical or religious at all.
Perhaps this is a phenomenon that somehow tries to change or push a new program or opinion to prepare for the arrival of these beings whether it is alien or the very hosts of heaven themselves.
I was recently in Los Angeles visiting Universal Studios. I am in the process of developing a television show for the Sci-Fi Channel. While I was there the buzz was thick about Steven Spielberg and his new 10 part mini series on alien abduction called "Taken."
I have always had a bittersweet respect for the abduction phenomenon and I am confused as to what its purpose is. I believe that abductions and visitations take place. I have seen things in my lifetime that I can't explain and so it is not beyond the realm of possibility that these beings whatever they may be interact with human beings.
One thing is for sure you can see the blaring similarities throughout history of beings coming down from the sky and speaking with people about the fate of the earth.
They take on spiritual and environmental issues. They warn of impending cataclysm and they also take people up into heaven where they allegedly conduct experiments on their chosen subjects.
This seems to be a constant program. It is subtle and somehow creates a change in thinking. So much is the swell of thought that religions are created, bibles are written, and news stories appear in documentaries about innocent people who are taken up in a modern day alien rapture.
Many people are frightened by their experience and others look at them as spiritually enlightening affairs.
Others like Lahaye and Spielberg make television series that entertain and somehow warn of what may be the future.
From angels in the bible to the abductions of today one has to wonder about the stories that have surfaced and why we are so "caught up" in being "caught up" into heaven, space, or some other dimension.
In the 21st century apocalyptic world where dispensational dementia has taken over, a new mantra can be quipped and this one can replace the popular axiom "The truth is out there."
I believe it simplifies the new "rapture" movement and the revelation of alien abduction and encounters with ethereal beings. The statement is quick and sends a haunting message of being accepted or being abandoned.
If you are not "Taken" you must be "Left behind."
Copyright 1998-2007 Ground Zero Media, Clyde Lewis, and John Hart. All Rights Reserved.